The Ecological regions of Quebec are regions with specific types of vegetation and climates connectingsingles in rock forest quebec defined by the Quebec Ministry of Forests, Wildlife and Parks.
Given the size of this huge province, there is wide variation from the temperate deciduous forests of the southwest to the arctic tundra of the extreme north. Most of the natural vegetation is forest, with various species of trees and other plants, and these forests are the habitat for diverse fauna. Energy, precipitation and soil are all important factors in determining what can grow. The climate influences the natural disturbances that affect forests: western Quebec has a drier climate than the east, and experiences more fires.
For most species these disturbances are not disasters, and some need them to regenerate. The climate in Quebec supports rich deciduous forest in the southern regions, and further north become progressively harsher. In the Saint Lawrence Lowlands there are graduations of climate from southwest to northeast. Changes in elevation can have similar effects to changes in latitude, connectingsingles in rock forest quebec plants adapted connectingsingles in rock forest quebec cooler conditions found higher up.
Within a given bioclimatic domain the types of vegetation depend on soil, terrain features such as hilltops, slopes and connectingsingles in rock forest quebec floors, and disturbances such as connectingsingles in rock forest quebec, insect infestations and logging.
The Quebec Ministry of Forests, Wildlife and Parks divides Quebec into three vegetation zones: northern temperate, boreal and Arctic, which correspond to Quebec's major climate subdivisions, and divides these into sub-zones, connectingsingles in rock forest quebec in turn connectingsingles in rock forest quebec divided into domains and sub-domains.
All of the bedrock of Quebec north of the foothills of the Laurentian Mountains is the Canadian Shieldone of the oldest and most stable of geological formations in the world, with rocks from million to 4 billion years old. The rocks are hard and mostly acidic.
They are sedimentary, once the beds of ancient seas. Most of the rock is covered with surface deposits from a few centimeters or inches thick to over 60 metres ft. All forests grow on deposits at least 50 centimetres 20 in thick. The roots penetrate the deposits and draw water and nutrients from them.
The Laurentide Ice Sheet began to melt in the south about 15, years ago, and steadily retreated north, exposing rocks, sand and silt that had been scraped from the rock when the glaciers connectingsingles in rock forest quebec moved south. These loose deposits, or glacial tillare the most abundant type of surface deposit in Quebec. The tills drain well due to their stones and abundant sand, but their richness in nutrients depends on their origins. Most of Quebec's coniferous boreal forest grows on the Canadian Shield.
These are regions with similar climate and vegetation. There are ten of these domains. Some of the domains are subdivided into west and east sub-domains due to differences in vegetation caused by differences in precipitation. The domains are: . The deciduous forest sub-zone contains northern hardwood forests and is dominated by maples Acer.
Windthrow is an important element of the forest dynamics. It includes several warm climate species, some at the northern limit of their range such as connectingsingles in rock forest quebec hickory Carya cordiformisshagbark hickory Carya ovatahackberries Celtisblack maple Acer nigrumswamp white oak Quercus bicolorrock elm Ulmus thomasiipitch pine Pinus rigida and several shrubs and herbaceous plants.
Other species such as sugar maple Acer saccharumfir and spruce also grow further north. As well as sugar maple the American basswood Tilia americanawhite ash Fraxinus americanaAmerican hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana and butternut Juglans cinerea are found in favorable locations, but are less common beyond this area.
The western subdomain is drier than the eastern subdomain, and the northern red oak Quercus rubra is more common in the east. The flora are less diverse and include many boreal species. On representative sites the yellow birch Betula alleghaniensis is one of the main companions to the sugar maple. American Basswood, American hophornbeam. American beech Fagus grandifolianorthern red oak and eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis grow in this area, but are very rare beyond its northern limit.
The domain is divided into east and west sub-domains based on rainfall and the distribution of eastern white pine Pinus strobus and red pine Pinus resinosa. It is slightly less rich in species than the deciduous forest sub-zone. It contains southern species such as yellow birch Betula alleghaniensis and boreal species such as balsam fir Abies balsamea and black spruce Picea mariana.
This domain is an ecotoneor transition from the northern temperate zone to the boreal zone. The sugar maple is at the northern limit of its range here.
Typical sites have mixed stands of yellow birch and conifers such as balsam fir, white spruce Picea glauca and cedar. Fires and outbreaks of spruce budworm are the main types of forest disturbance. The boreal zone has three sub-zones: boreal forest, taiga and tundra forest.
The boreal forest sub-zone has fairly dense stands that mostly contain boreal softwood species and light-leaved deciduous trees. The forests are dominated by stands of fir and white spruce, often mixed with white birch. Yellow birch and red maple Acer rubrum are found only in the south of the domain. In more marginal areas black spruce Picea marianajack pine Pinus banksiana and tamarack Larix laricina often grow beside paper birch Betula papyrifera connectingsingles in rock forest quebec trembling aspen Populus tremuloides.
Spruce budworm is the main type of forest disturbance, attacking the balsam fir. Fire is also a significant factor. The western part of the domain is drier and has more frequent fires, resulting in more stands of species such as trembling aspen, white birch and jack pine. The forest is dominated by black spruce, which is often the only species of tree, but is often accompanied by species such as balsam fir. Hardwoods such as white birch, trembling aspen and sometimes balsam poplar also grow in this area.
The ground is covered with hypnaceous mosses and ericaceous shrubs. There are few herbaceous species. Fires are the main factor in forest dynamics, and occur more frequently in the west, which has fewer fir trees than the east. It differs from the spruce-moss forest mainly by the more sparse forest cover. Black spruce, which is adapted to the harsh climate with low precipitation, grows in a carpet of lichens. Balsam fir and jack pine are found at the northern limit of their range. Fires can destroy huge areas in this domain.
The tundra sub-zone contain one domain, the forest tundra domain. Shrubby heathland connectingsingles in rock forest quebec shrubs and lichens has patches of forest in sheltered sites, mainly stunted black spruce less than 3 metres 10 ft high.
There are some areas of permafrost. The tree line, beyond which black spruce, white spruce and tamarack no longer grow, is the boundary between the boreal zone and the Arctic zone. The Low Arctic sub-zone, the connectingsingles in rock forest quebec Arctic sub-zone in Quebec, has no trees, continuous permafrost and tundra vegetation.
This includes shrubs, herbaceous plants, typically graminoidsmosses and lichens. It includes the tundra arctic shrubs domain and the tundra arctic herbaceous domain. Dwarf willows and birches no more than 2 metres 6 ft 7 in high grow beside herbaceous plants, mostly graminoids, mosses and lichens.
The tundra arctic herbaceous domain is the northernmost domain in Quebec, and is completely covered in permafrost. Shrubs are connectingsingles in rock forest quebec and small. Cyperaceaegrasses, mosses and lichens are connectingsingles in rock forest quebec, and rock and mineral soil is often bare. Contents move to connectingsingles in rock forest quebec hide. Article Talk. Read Edit View history. Tools Tools. Download as PDF Printable version.
Tundra forest. Tundra arctic shrubs. Tundra arctic herbaceous. Categories : Ecozones and ecoregions connectingsingles in rock forest quebec Quebec Quebec geography-related lists.
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