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Charlemagne succeeded in uniting the majority of Western and Central Europeand he was the first recognized emperor to rule Western Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire approximately three centuries earlier.

Charlemagne's rule saw a program of political and societal changes that had a lasting impact on Europe in the Middle Ages. With his brother Carloman Ihe became king of the Franks in following Pepins's single woman charlemagne qc, and became sole ruler in As king, he continued his father's policy towards the protection of the papacy and became its chief defender, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy in Charlemagne's reign saw a period of expansion that led to conquests of BavariaSaxonyand northern Spainas well as other single woman charlemagne qc that led Charles to extend his rule over a vast area of Europe.

He spread Christianity to his new conquests, often by force, as seen at the Massacre of Verden against the Saxons. While historians debate about the exact significance of the coronation, the title represented the height of prestige and authority he had achieved.

Charlemagne's position as the first emperor in the West in over years brought him into conflict with the contemporary Eastern Roman Empire based in Constantinople.

As king and emperor, Charlemagne engaged in a series of reforms in administration, law, education, military organization, and religion which shaped Europe for centuries.

The stability of his reign saw the beginning of a period of significant single woman charlemagne qc activity known as the Carolingian Renaissance. Charlemagne died inand was laid to rest in the Aachen Cathedralin his imperial capital city of Aachen. He was succeeded by his only surviving son Louis the Pious.

After Louis, the Frankish kingdom would be divided, eventually single woman charlemagne qc into West and East Franciawhich would respectively become France and the Holy Roman Empire. Charlemagne's profound impact on the Middle Ages, and the influence on the vast territory he ruled has led him to be called the "Father of Europe". He is seen as a founding figure by multiple European states, and many historical royal houses of Europe trace their lineage back to single woman charlemagne qc. Charlemagne has been the subject of artwork, monuments, and literature since the medieval period, and has received veneration in the Catholic Church.

Various languages were spoken in Charlemagne's world, and he would have been known to contemporaries as: Karlus in the Germanic dialect he spoke; Karlo to Romance speakers; or Carolus or an alternative form, Karolus [2] in Latinthe formal language of writing and diplomacy. The name Charlemagne, by which the emperor is normally known in English, comes from the French Charles-le-magnemeaning "Charles the Great". The nickname magnus great may have been associated with him already in his lifetime, but this is not certain.

Charles's achievements gave a new meaning to his name. In many SlavicBaltic and Turkic languagesthe very word for "king" derives from his name; e. This development parallels that of the name of the Caesars in the original Roman Empire, which became kaiser and tsar or czaramong others. By the 6th century, the western Germanic tribe of the Franks had been Christianiseddue in considerable measure to the Catholic conversion of Clovis I.

InPepin of Herstalmayor of the palace of the Frankish sub-kingdom Austrasiaended the strife between various kings and their mayors with single woman charlemagne qc victory at Tertry. Charlemagne's birth date is uncertain, but was most likely born in Einhard speaks of Charlemagne's patrius sermo"father" or "native toungue". Due to the prevalence in Francia of the " rustic Roman " language that was rapidly developing into Old Frenchhe was probably functionally bilingual in both Germanic and Romance dialects from a young age.

Charlemagne's father was educated at the abbey of Saint-Denisthough the extent of Charlemagne's formal education is unknown. He normally had texts read aloud to him and dictated responses and decrees, though this is not abnormal for the time.

Charlemagne appears only sparsely in the Frankish annals before death of his father. Charlemagne began issuing charters in his own name inand is recorded as joining his father on campaign in Carloman's refusal to participate in the war against Aquitaine led to a rift between the two kings. It is possible that the brothers disagreed over control over the territory, [54] [56] or that Carloman was focusing on securing his rule in the north of Francia.

The political affairs of Italy became a focus of Charlemagne's. The Papacy had sought the protection of the Franks from the aggression of the Lombards single woman charlemagne qc the time of Charles Martel, as single woman charlemagne qc ability of the Byzantine Empire to control Central Italy was fading. He sent a letter to both Frankish Kings decrying the marriage, while also separately seeking closer ties with Carloman.

Carloman died suddenly on 4 Single woman charlemagne qcleaving Charlemagne as sole King of the Franks. At his succession inPope Adrian I demanded the return of single woman charlemagne qc cities in the former exarchate single woman charlemagne qc Ravenna in accordance with a promise at the succession of Desiderius.

Instead, Desiderius took over certain papal cities and invaded the Pentapolisheading for Rome. Adrian sent ambassadors to Charlemagne in autumn requesting he enforce the policies of his father, Pepin. Desiderius sent his own ambassadors denying the pope's charges.

Single woman charlemagne qc ambassadors met at Thionvilleand Charlemagne upheld the pope's side. Charlemagne demanded what the single woman charlemagne qc had single woman charlemagne qc, but Desiderius swore never to comply. Charlemagne and his uncle Bernard crossed the Alps in and chased the Lombards back to Pavia, which they then besieged. The young prince was chased to the Adriatic littoral and fled to Constantinople to plead for assistance from Constantine Vwho was waging war with Bulgaria.

The siege lasted until the spring of single woman charlemagne qc Charlemagne visited the pope in Rome. There he confirmed his father's grants of land[78] with some later chronicles falsely claiming that he also expanded them, granting TuscanyEmiliaVenice and Corsica.

The pope granted him the title patrician. He then returned to Pavia, where the Lombards were on the verge of surrendering. In return for their lives, the Lombards surrendered and opened the gates in early summer. Desiderius was sent to the abbey of Corbieand his son Adelchis died in Constantinople, a patrician.

Charles, unusually, had himself crowned with the Iron Crown and made the magnates of Lombardy pay homage to him at Pavia. Charlemagne was then master of Italy as king of the Lombards. He left Italy with a garrison in Pavia and a few Frankish counts in place the same year. Instability continued in Italy. Charlemagne rushed back from Saxony and defeated the Duke of Friuli in battle; the Duke was slain. Their co-conspirator, Arechis, was not subdued, and Adelchis, their candidate in Byzantiumnever left that city.

Northern Italy was now faithfully his. InCharlemagne directed his attention towards the Duchy of Benevento[79] where Arechis II was reigning independently with the self-given title of Princeps. Charlemagne's siege of Salerno forced Arechis into submission, and single woman charlemagne qc return for peace, Arechis recognized Charlemagne's suzerainty and handed his son Grimoald III over as a hostage. After Arechis' death inGrimoald was allowed to return to Benevento.

Inthe principality was invaded by Byzantine troops led by Adelchis, but his attempts were thwarted by Grimoald. The Franks assisted in the repulsion of Adelchis, but, in turn, attacked Benevento's territories several times, [80] obtaining small gains, notably the annexation of Chieti to the duchy of Spoleto.

The destructive war led by Pepin in Aquitaine, although brought to a satisfactory conclusion for the Franks, proved the Frankish power structure south of the Loire was feeble and unreliable. After the defeat and death of Waifer inwhile Aquitaine submitted again to the Carolingian dynasty, a new rebellion broke out in led by Hunald II, a possible son of Waifer. He took refuge with the ally Duke Lupus II of Gasconybut probably out of fear of Charlemagne's reprisal, Lupus handed him over to the new King of the Franks to whom he pledged loyalty, which seemed to confirm the peace in the Basque single woman charlemagne qc south of the Garonne.

The Basque Duke, in turn, seems to have contributed decisively or schemed the Battle of Roncevaux Pass referred to as "Basque treachery".

The defeat of Charlemagne's army in Roncevaux confirmed his determination to rule directly by establishing the Kingdom of Aquitaine ruled by Louis the Pious based single woman charlemagne qc a power base of Frankish officials, distributing lands among colonisers and allocating lands to the Church, which he took as an ally.

A Christianisation programme was put in place across the high Pyrenees The new political single woman charlemagne qc for Vasconia did not sit well with local lords. He was eventually released, but Charlemagne, enraged at the compromise, decided to depose him and appointed his trustee William of Gellone.

William, in turn, fought the Basques and defeated them after banishing Adalric Events in the Duchy of Vasconia rebellion in Pamplona, count overthrown in AragonDuke Seguin of Bordeaux deposed, uprising of the Basque lords, etc.

These "Saracen" Moorish and Muwallad rulers offered their homage to the king of the Franks in return for military support. Seeing an opportunity to extend Christendom and his own power, and believing the Saxons to be a fully conquered nation, Charlemagne agreed to go to Spain. The armies met at Saragossa and Charlemagne received the homage of the Muslim rulers, Sulayman al-Arabi and Single woman charlemagne qc ibn Yusuf, but the city did not fall for him.

Indeed, Charlemagne faced the toughest battle of his career. The Muslims forced him to retreat, so he decided to go home, as he could not trust the Basqueswhom he had subdued by conquering Pamplona.

He turned to leave Iberia, but as his single woman charlemagne qc was crossing back through the Pass of Roncesvallesone of the most famous events of his reign occurred: the Basques attacked and destroyed his rearguard and baggage train. The Battle of Roncevaux Passthough less a battle than a skirmish, left many famous dead, including the seneschal Eggihard, the count of the palace Anselm, and the warden of the Breton MarchRolandinspiring the subsequent creation of The Song of Roland La Chanson de Rolandregarded as the first major work in the French language.

The conquest of Italy brought Charlemagne in contact with Muslims who, at the time, controlled the Mediterranean. Charlemagne's eldest son, Pepin the Hunchbackwas much occupied with Muslims in Italy. Charlemagne conquered Corsica and Sardinia at an unknown date and in the Balearic Islands.

The islands were often attacked by Muslim pirates, but the counts of Genoa and Tuscany Boniface controlled them with large fleets until the end of Charlemagne's reign. Charlemagne even had contact with the caliphal court in Baghdad. In or possiblythe caliph of Baghdad, Harun al-Rashidpresented Charlemagne with an Asian elephant named Abul-Abbas and a clock.

In Hispaniathe struggle against Islam continued unabated throughout the latter half of his reign. Louis was in charge of the Spanish border. Inhis men captured Girona permanently and extended Frankish control into the Catalan littoral for the duration of Charlemagne's single woman charlemagne qc the area remained nominally Frankish until the Treaty of Corbeil in The Muslim chiefs in the northeast of Islamic Spain were constantly rebelling against Cordovan authority, and they often turned to the Franks for help.

The Frankish border was slowly extended untilwhen Single woman charlemagne qc, CardonaAusona and Urgell were united into the new Spanish Marchwithin the old duchy of Septimania. In single woman charlemagne qc, Barcelonathe greatest city of the region, fell to the Franks when Zeid, its governor, rebelled against Cordova and, failing, handed it to them.

The Single woman charlemagne qc authority recaptured it in However, Louis of Aquitaine marched the entire army of his kingdom over the Pyrenees and besieged it for two years, wintering there from towhen it capitulated.

The Franks continued single woman charlemagne qc press forward against the emir. They probably took Tarragona and forced the submission of Tortosa in The single woman charlemagne qc conquest brought them to the mouth of the Ebro and gave them raiding access to Valenciaprompting the Emir al-Hakam I to recognise their conquests in Charlemagne was engaged in almost constant warfare throughout his reign, [88] often at the head of his elite scara bodyguard squadrons.

In the Saxon Warsspanning thirty years and eighteen battles, he conquered Saxonia and proceeded to convert it to Christianity.

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