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The cathedral, dedicated to the Virgin Maryis considered one dating free near notre-dame-de-grace the finest examples of French Gothic architecture. Several attributes set it apart from the earlier Romanesque styleparticularly its pioneering use of the rib vault and flying buttressits enormous dating free near notre-dame-de-grace colourful rose windowsand the naturalism and abundance of its sculptural decoration.
Built during medieval Franceconstruction of the cathedral began in under Bishop Maurice de Sully and was largely completed bythough it was modified in succeeding centuries. In the s, during the French Dating free near notre-dame-de-graceNotre-Dame suffered extensive desecration ; much of its religious imagery was damaged or destroyed. In the 19th century, the coronation of Napoleon I and the funerals of many of the French Republic's presidents took place at the cathedral.
Another cleaning and restoration project was carried out between and The cathedral is a widely recognized symbol of the city of Paris and the Dating free near notre-dame-de-grace nation. Init was awarded honorary status as a minor basilica.
As the cathedral of the archdiocese of ParisNotre-Dame contains the cathedra of the archbishop of Paris currently Laurent Ulrich. In the early 21st century, approximately 12 million people visited Notre-Dame annually, making it the most visited monument in Paris. In recent years, these sermons have increasingly been given by leading public figures or government-employed academics.
Over time, the cathedral has gradually been stripped of many decorations and artworks. However, the cathedral still contains several Gothic, Baroqueand 19th-century sculptures, 17th- and early 18th-century altarpieces, and some of the most important relics in Christendom — including the Crown of Thornsa sliver of the true cross and a nail from the true cross.
On 15 Aprilwhile Notre-Dame was undergoing renovation and restoration, its roof caught fire and burned for 15 hours. The cathedral sustained serious damage. The cathedral is expected to re-open on 8 December dating free near notre-dame-de-grace The date was confirmed by President Macron.
It is believed that before the arrival of Christianity in Francea Gallo-Roman temple dedicated to Jupiter stood on the site of Notre-Dame. Evidence for this includes the Pillar of dating free near notre-dame-de-grace Boatmendiscovered beneath the cathedral in It was roughly half the size of the later Notre-Dame, 70 metres ft long—and separated into nave and four aisles by marble columns, then decorated with mosaics. Inthe Bishop of ParisMaurice de Sully decided dating free near notre-dame-de-grace build a new and much larger church.
He summarily demolished the earlier cathedral and recycled its materials. Analysis of vault stones that fell in the fire shows that they were quarried in Vexina county northwest of Paris, and presumably brought up the Seine by ferry. The first phase began with the construction of the choir and dating free near notre-dame-de-grace two ambulatories. It began after the completion of the choir but ended before the final allotted section of the nave was finished.
Louis IX deposited the relics of the passion of Christwhich included the Crown of thornsdating free near notre-dame-de-grace nail from the Cross and a sliver of the Cross, which he had purchased at great expense from the Latin Emperor Baldwin IIin the cathedral during the construction of the Sainte-Chapelle.
An under-shirtbelieved to have belonged to Louis, was added to the collection of relics at some time after his death. Transepts were added at the dating free near notre-dame-de-grace, where the altar was located, in order dating free near notre-dame-de-grace bring more light into the centre of the church. The use of simpler four-part rather than six-part rib vaults meant that the roofs were stronger and could be higher.
After Bishop Maurice de Sully's death inhis successor, Eudes de Sully oversaw the completion of the transepts, and continued work on the navewhich was nearing completion at the time of his death in Another significant change came in the midth century, when the transepts were remodelled in the latest Rayonnant style; in the late s Jean de Chelles added a gabled portal to the north transept topped by a spectacular rose window.
Shortly afterward from Pierre de Montreuil executed a similar scheme on the southern transept. Both these transept portals were richly embellished with sculpture; the south portal depicts scenes from the lives of Saint Stephen and of various local saints, while the north portal featured the infancy of Christ and the story of Theophilus in the tympanumwith a highly influential statue of the Virgin and Child in the trumeau.
Ravy completed de Chelles's rood screen and chevet chapels, then began the metre 49 ft dating free near notre-dame-de-grace buttresses of the choir. Jean le Bouteiller, Ravy's nephew, succeeded him in and was himself replaced on his death in by his deputy, Raymond du Temple. Philip the Fair opened the first Estates General dating free near notre-dame-de-grace the cathedral in An important innovation in the 13th century was the introduction of the flying buttress.
Before the buttresses, all of the weight of the roof pressed outward and down to the walls, and the abutments supporting them. With the flying buttress, the weight was carried by the ribs of the vault entirely outside the structure to a series of counter-supports, which were topped with stone pinnacles which gave them greater weight.
The buttresses meant that the walls could be higher and thinner, and could have larger windows. The date of the first buttresses is not known with precision beyond an installation date in the 13th century. Art historian Andrew Tallonhowever, has argued, based on detailed laser scans of the entire structure, that the buttresses were part of the original design.
According to Tallon, the scans indicate that "the upper part of the building has not moved one smidgen in years,"  whereas if they were added later some movement from prior to their addition would be expected. Tallon dating free near notre-dame-de-grace concluded that flying buttresses were present from the outset.
John of Jandun recognized the cathedral dating free near notre-dame-de-grace one of Paris's three most important buildings [prominent structures] in his Treatise on the Praises of Paris :. That most glorious church of the most glorious Virgin Mary, mother of God, deservedly shines out, like the sun among stars. And although some speakers, by their own free judgment, because [they are] able to see only a few things easily, may say that some other is more beautiful, I believe, however, respectfully, that, if they attend more diligently to the whole and the parts, they will quickly retract this opinion.
Where indeed, I ask, would they find two towers of such magnificence and perfection, so high, so large, so strong, clothed round about with such multiple varieties of ornaments? Where, I ask, would they find such dating free near notre-dame-de-grace multipartite arrangement of so many lateral vaults, above dating free near notre-dame-de-grace below?
Where, I ask, would they find such light-filled amenities as the many surrounding chapels? Furthermore, let them tell me in what church I may see such a large cross, of which one arm separates the choir from the nave. Finally, I would willingly learn where [there are] two such circles, situated opposite each other in a straight line, which on account of their appearance are given the name of the fourth dating free near notre-dame-de-grace [O]; among which smaller orbs and circles, with wondrous artifice, so that some arranged circularly, others angularly, surround windows ruddy with precious colours and beautiful with the most subtle figures of the pictures.
In fact, I believe that this church offers the carefully discerning such cause for admiration that its inspection can scarcely sate the soul. During the Renaissancethe Gothic style fell out of style, and the internal pillars and walls of Notre-Dame were covered with tapestries. Inrioting Huguenots damaged some of the statues of Notre-Dame, considering them idolatrous. The dating free near notre-dame-de-grace [ fr ] in Notre-Dame's parvis was added in to provide nearby Parisians with running water.
Sincethe Parisian goldsmith guild had dating free near notre-dame-de-grace regular donations to the cathedral chapter. Inthe guild began donating a large altarpiece every year on the first of May. These works came to be known as the grands mays. Seventy-six paintings had been donated bywhen the custom was discontinued for financial reasons. Those works were confiscated in and the majority were subsequently dispersed among regional museums in France.
Those that remained in the cathedral were removed or relocated within the building by the 19th-century restorers. Today, thirteen of the grands mays hang in Notre-Dame although these paintings suffered water damage during the fire of and were removed for conservation. An altarpiece depicting the Visitation, painted by Jean Jouvenet inwas also located in the cathedral.
Noailles also strengthened the buttresses, galleries, terraces, and vaults. The medieval stained glass windows, except the rosettes, were removed and replaced with plain, white glass panes. After the French Revolution inNotre-Dame and the rest of the church's property in France was seized and made public property.
For a time the Goddess of Liberty replaced the Virgin Mary on several altars. Napoleon also named Paris's new bishop, Jean-Baptiste de Belloywho restored the cathedral's interior.
The building's exterior was whitewashed and the interior decorated in Neoclassical style, then in vogue. In the decades after the Napoleonic WarsNotre-Dame fell into such a state of disrepair that Paris officials considered its demolition. The book was an enormous success, raising awareness of the cathedral's decaying state. The next year, Viollet-le-Duc submitted a budget of 3, francswhich was reduced to 2, francs, for the restoration of Notre-Dame and the construction of a new sacristy building.
This budget was exhausted inand work stopped as Viollet-le-Duc made proposals for more money. In totality, the restoration cost over 12 million francs. Supervising a large team of sculptors, glass makers and other craftsmen, and working from drawings or engravings, Viollet-le-Duc remade or added decorations if he dating free near notre-dame-de-grace they were in the spirit of the original style.
The construction of the sacristy was especially financially costly. To secure a firm foundation, it was necessary for Viollet-le-Duc's labourers to dating free near notre-dame-de-grace 9 metres 30 ft.
During the Paris Commune of March through Maythe Cathedral and other churches were dating free near notre-dame-de-grace, and some two hundred priests and the Archbishop of Paris were taken as hostages. In May, during the Semaine sanglante of "Bloody Week", as the army recaptured the city, the Communards targeted the cathedral, along with the Tuileries Palace and other landmarks, for destruction; the Communards piled the furniture together in order to burn the cathedral.
During the liberation of Paris in Augustdating free near notre-dame-de-grace cathedral suffered some dating free near notre-dame-de-grace damage from stray bullets. Some of the medieval glass was damaged, and was replaced by glass with modern abstract designs.
The stone masonry of the cathedral's exterior had dating free near notre-dame-de-grace in the 19th and 20th century due to increased air pollution in Paris, which accelerated erosion of decorations and discoloured the stone. By the late s, several gargoyles and turrets had also fallen or become too loose to safely remain in place. The set of four 19th-century bells dating free near notre-dame-de-grace the top of the northern towers at Notre-Dame were melted down and recast into new bronze bells into celebrate the building's th dating free near notre-dame-de-grace. They were designed to recreate the sound of the cathedral's original bells from the 17th century.
Notre-Dame began a year-long celebration of the th anniversary of the laying of the first building block for the cathedral on 12 December Around 1, visitors were evacuated from the cathedral. French police arrested two people on 8 September after a car containing seven gasoline canisters was found near Notre-Dame. On 10 FebruaryFrench police arrested dating free near notre-dame-de-grace persons in Montpellier already known by authorities to have ties to radical Islamist organizations on charges of plotting to travel to Paris and attack the cathedral.
According to later studies, the fire broke out in the attic of the cathedral at The smoke detectors immediately signaled the fire to a cathedral employee, who did not summon the fire brigade but instead sent a cathedral guard to investigate. Instead of going to the correct attic, the guard was sent to the wrong location, to the attic of the adjoining sacristy, and reported there was no fire. The guard telephoned his supervisor, who did not immediately answer. About fifteen minutes later the error was discovered, whereupon the guard's supervisor told him to go to the correct location.
The fire brigade was still not notified. By the time the dating free near notre-dame-de-grace had climbed the three hundred steps to the cathedral attic the fire was well advanced.
Firefighters arrived in less than ten minutes. The firefighters inside were ordered back down.
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